Using Subobservers to Synthesize Opacity-Enforcing Supervisors

Richard Hugh Moulton, Behnam Behinaein Hamgini, Zahra Abedi Khouzani, Rômulo Meira-Góes, Fei Wang, Karen Rudie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


In discrete-event system control, the worst-case time complexity for computing a system’s observer is exponential in the number of that system’s states. This results in practical difficulties since some problems require calculating multiple observers for a changing system, e.g., synthesizing an opacity-enforcing supervisor. Although calculating these observers in an iterative manner allows us to synthesize an opacity-enforcing supervisor and although methods have been proposed to reduce the computational demands, room exists for a practical and intuitive solution. Here we extend the subautomaton relationship to the notion of a subobserver and demonstrate its use in reducing the computations required for iterated observer calculations. We then demonstrate the subobserver relationship’s power by simplifying state-of-the-art synthesis approaches for opacity-enforcing supervisors under realistic assumptions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)611-640
Number of pages30
JournalDiscrete Event Dynamic Systems: Theory and Applications
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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