Using survey results to direct future extension efforts in annual bluegrass management

Alec R. Kowalewski, Clint M. Mattox, J. T. Brosnan, J. E. Kaminski, Aaron J. Patton, Jay D. McCurdy, Rebecca G. Bowling, Travis W. Gannon, Shawn D. Askew, J. Scott McElroy, J. Bryan Unruh, Matthew T. Elmore, D. E. Carroll, Edicarlos B. De Castro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Controlling unwanted annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) in desirable turfgrass species often relies heavily on herbicide use. As a result, increasing populations of herbicide-resistant annual bluegrass have become a concern. In 2018, a university research and extension initiative began addressing the increasing herbicide-resistant annual bluegrass epidemic. Preliminary findings produced by this research initiative were presented to golf course employees at the 2022 Golf Course Superintendents Association of American Educational Conference in San Diego, California. Findings were presented by a panel of scientists working on various annual bluegrass research sub-objectives. A survey was designed to match the sub-objectives within this panel presentation and determine what recommendations the attendees were most likely to use. The survey also identified environmental zones where participants originated and what turfgrass species they are managing in various areas of the golf course. The goal of sharing these survey findings is to assist turfgrass extension specialists and managers interested in designing annual bluegrass management programs that match stakeholder needs. Survey results determined that extension material pertaining to controlling annual bluegrass with cultural practices would interest the largest stakeholder cross section regardless of environmental turfgrass zone. Another major topic was annual bluegrass emergence patterns for herbicide timing, which was the most important or interesting topic for golf course employees in the warm-season turfgrass environmental zone.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere20123
JournalNatural Sciences Education
Issue number2
StatePublished - Dec 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ecology
  • Education
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Soil Science
  • Plant Science
  • Insect Science

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