Vacancy ordering in reduced barium titanate

David I. Woodward, Ian M. Reaney, Gaiying Y. Yang, Elizabeth C. Dickey, Clive A. Randall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

108 Scopus citations


A crystal structure for reduced barium titanate, BaTiO 3-δ, δ∼0.33, formed during the degradation of Ni-BaTiO 3 X7R multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) was proposed. MLCCs were fabricated using traditional tape casting and screen printing methods. The vacancy ordering in reduced barium titanate was investigated. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected-area electron diffraction were used in combination with computer simulations to show that oxygen vacancies accrete on every third pseudocubic {111} plane, resulting in a cell with space group P3 m 1. Ti 4+ was reduced to Ti 3+ as a mechanism of charge compensation within oxygen-deficient octahedra.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4650-4652
Number of pages3
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number23
StatePublished - Jun 7 2004

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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