Validation of a Temperature-Feedback Controlled Automated Magnetic Hyperthermia Therapy Device

Anirudh Sharma, Avesh Jangam, Julian Low Yung Shen, Aiman Ahmad, Nageshwar Arepally, Benjamin Rodriguez, Joseph Borrello, Alexandros Bouras, Lawrence Kleinberg, Kai Ding, Constantinos Hadjipanayis, Dara L. Kraitchman, Robert Ivkov, Anilchandra Attaluri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


We present in vivo validation of an automated magnetic hyperthermia therapy (MHT) device that uses real-time temperature input measured at the target to control tissue heating. MHT is a thermal therapy that uses heat generated by magnetic materials exposed to an alternating magnetic field. For temperature monitoring, we integrated a commercial fiber optic temperature probe containing four gallium arsenide (GaAs) temperature sensors. The controller device used temperature from the sensors as input to manage power to the magnetic field applicator. We developed a robust, multi-objective, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) algorithm to control the target thermal dose by modulating power delivered to the magnetic field applicator. The magnetic field applicator was a 20 cm diameter Maxwell-type induction coil powered by a 120 kW induction heating power supply operating at 160 kHz. Finite element (FE) simulations were performed to determine values of the PID gain factors prior to verification and validation trials. Ex vivo verification and validation were conducted in gel phantoms and sectioned bovine liver, respectively. In vivo validation of the controller was achieved in a canine research subject following infusion of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) into the brain. In all cases, performance matched controller design criteria, while also achieving a thermal dose measured as cumulative equivalent minutes at 43 °C (CEM43) 60 ± 5 min within 30 min.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number327
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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