Validation of standardized data formats and tools for ground-level particle-based gamma-ray observatories

A. Albert, R. Alfaro, J. C. Arteaga-Velázquez, H. A. Ayala Solares, R. Babu, E. Belmont-Moreno, C. Brisbois, K. S. Caballero-Mora, T. Capistrán, A. Carramiñana, S. Casanova, O. Chaparro-Amaro, U. Cotti, J. Cotzomi, S. Coutiño De León, E. De La Fuente, R. Diaz Hernandez, M. A. Duvernois, M. Durocher, C. EspinozaK. L. Fan, M. Fernández Alonso, N. Fraija, J. A. García-González, H. Goksu, M. M. González, J. A. Goodman, J. P. Harding, J. Hinton, D. Huang, F. Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, P. Hüntemeyer, A. Jardin-Blicq, V. Joshi, J. T. Linnemann, A. L. Longinotti, G. Luis-Raya, K. Malone, V. Marandon, O. Martinez, J. Martínez-Castro, J. A. Matthews, P. Miranda-Romagnoli, J. A. Morales-Soto, E. Moreno, M. Mostafá, A. Nayerhoda, L. Nellen, M. U. Nisa, R. Noriega-Papaqui, L. Olivera-Nieto, E. G. Pérez-Pérez, C. D. Rho, D. Rosa-González, E. Ruiz-Velasco, D. Salazar-Gallegos, F. Salesa Greus, A. Sandoval, H. Schoorlemmer, J. Serna-Franco, A. J. Smith, Y. Son, R. W. Springer, K. Tollefson, I. Torres, R. Torres-Escobedo, R. Turner, F. Ureña-Mena, L. Villaseñor, X. Wang, I. J. Watson, E. Willox, H. Zhou, C. De León, A. Zepeda, A. Donath, S. Funk

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2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Context. Ground-based γ-ray astronomy is still a rather young field of research, with strong historical connections to particle physics. This is why most observations are conducted by experiments with proprietary data and analysis software, as is usual in the particle physics field. However, in recent years, this paradigm has been slowly shifting toward the development and use of open-source data formats and tools, driven by upcoming observatories such as the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). In this context, a community-driven, shared data format (the gamma-Astro-data-format, or GADF) and analysis tools such as Gammapy and ctools have been developed. So far, these efforts have been led by the Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope community, leaving out other types of ground-based γ-ray instruments. Aims. We aim to show that the data from ground particle arrays, such as the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory, are also compatible with the GADF and can thus be fully analyzed using the related tools, in this case, Gammapy. Methods. We reproduced several published HAWC results using Gammapy and data products compliant with GADF standard. We also illustrate the capabilities of the shared format and tools by producing a joint fit of the Crab spectrum including data from six different γ-ray experiments. Results. We find excellent agreement with the reference results, a powerful confirmation of both the published results and the tools involved. Conclusions. The data from particle detector arrays such as the HAWC observatory can be adapted to the GADF and thus analyzed with Gammapy. A common data format and shared analysis tools allow multi-instrument joint analysis and effective data sharing. To emphasize this, a sample of Crab nebula event lists is made public with this paper. Because of the complementary nature of pointing and wide-field instruments, this synergy will be distinctly beneficial for the joint scientific exploitation of future observatories such as the Southern Wide-field Gamma-ray Observatory and CTA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberA36
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volume667
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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