Validation of three-dimensional models of in situ scapulae

Chris D. Bryce, Jason L. Pennypacker, Nikhil Kulkarni, Emmanuel M. Paul, Christopher S. Hollenbeak, Timothy Mosher, April Armstrong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Scopus citations


A principal challenge in creating accurate models of in situ scapulae is delineating bone from surrounding soft tissues. Computed tomography scans were obtained of both shoulders of 20 embalmed cadavers. Each shoulder was rescanned after repositioning of the cadavers to test for rescan reliability. After scans were complete, all scapulae were excised and stripped of all soft tissue. Thresholding, region growing, and manual processing were used to create computer-generated 3-dimensional (3D) models. Seven anatomic measurements were performed on each scapula and 3D model. Mean differences between corresponding measurements of specimen and model were small (<3 mm). Intraobserver and interobserver reliability for cadaveric measurements and rescan and interobserver reliability for model measurements were all excellent (R2 = 0.99). Patient positioning was not a significant source of error in obtaining measurements from 3D models. Results from this work verify that accurate and reproducible 3D models can be created from in situ scapulae by use of effective segmentation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)825-832
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2008

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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