A series of vanadium doped cryptomelane-type manganese oxide (V-OMS-2) catalysts were prepared by a simple, low-cost reflux method, and investigated for one-pot imine synthesis from oxidative coupling of benzyl alcohol and aniline with air. The physicochemical properties of the V-OMS-2 catalysts were characterized by various techniques including XRD, BET, SEM, TEM, XPS, H2-TPR and NH3-TPD. It was found that the surface area, Lewis acid sites, the amount of Mn3+ component and active surface oxygen species were much improved with vanadium doping. Consequently, the activity of V-OMS-2 catalyst for oxidative coupling of benzyl alcohol and aniline to imine was enhanced. The highest conversion and the imine yield were obtained over the 3 mol% V-OMS-2 catalyst, being ∼99% and 92%, respectively. Higher vanadium doping (≥ 6 mol%), however, hindered the preservation of OMS-2 crystal structure, leading to a drop in the catalytic performance. The high specific surface area was suggested to be the key contributor to the high catalytic activity of 3% V-OMS-2(1) catalyst. Among the vanadium precursors studied, the catalyst prepared with vanadium pentoxide exhibited a much higher catalytic activity, which can be attributed to its larger surface area, unique mesoporous structure, increased Lewis acid sites and more readily available surface oxygen species. In addition, the stability and recyclability of the catalyst were also studied, and the reaction mechanism was discussed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Process Chemistry and Technology