The role of oxidative and nitrosative stress has been implied in both physiology and pathophysiology of metabolic disorders. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has emerged as a crucial regulator of host metabolism and gut microbiota activity. The present study examines the role of the gut microbiome in determining host metabolic functions in the absence of iNOS. Insulin-resistant and dyslipidemic iNOS−/− mice displayed reduced microbial diversity, with a higher relative abundance of Allobaculum and Bifidobacterium, gram-positive bacteria, and altered serum metabolites along with metabolic dysregulation. Vancomycin, which largely depletes gram-positive bacteria, reversed the insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia, and related metabolic anomalies in iNOS−/− mice. Such improvements in metabolic markers were accompanied by alterations in the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis in the liver and adipose tissue, lipid uptake in adipose tissue, and lipid efflux in the liver and intestine tissue. The rescue of IR in vancomycin-treated iNOS−/− mice was accompanied with the changes in select serum metabolites such as 10-hydroxydecanoate, indole-3-ethanol, allantoin, hippurate, sebacic acid, aminoadipate, and ophthalmate, along with improvement in phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine (PE/PC) ratio. In the present study, we demonstrate that vancomycin-mediated depletion of gram-positive bacteria in iNOS−/− mice reversed the metabolic perturbations, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases