In this study, significant rainfall microphysical variability is revealed for the extremely heavy rainfall event over Henan Province in July 2021 (the “21·7” Henan EHR event) using a dense network of disdrometers and two polarimetric radars. The broad distributions of specific drop size distribution (DSD) parameters are identified in heavy rainfall from the disdrometer observations, indicating obvious microphysical variability on the surface. A K-means clustering algorithm is adopted to objectively classify the disdrometer datasets into separate groups, and distinct DSD characteristics are found among these heavy rainfall groups. Combined with the supporting microphysical structures obtained through radar observations, comprehensive microphysical features of the DSD groups are derived. An extreme rainfall group is dominantly formed in the deep convection over the plain regions, where the high number of concentrations and large mean sizes of surface raindrops are underpinned by both active ice-phase processes and efficient warm-rain collision-coalescence processes in the vertical direction. Convection located near orographic regions is characterized by restricted ice-phase processes and high coalescence efficiency of liquid hydrometeors, causing the dominant DSD group to comprise negligible large raindrops. Multiple DSD groups can coexist within certain precipitation episodes at the disdrometer stations, indicating the potential microphysical variability during the passage of convective system on the plain regions.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)