Very Hot and Really Crowded: Quasi-Experimental Investigations of Indian “Tempos”

R. Barry Ruback, Janak Pan Dey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Two studies investigated how temperature and crowding affect attitudes and behavior. In the first study, passengers in three-wheeled autorickshaws were interviewed under one of three levels of crowding and at one of three temperature ranges during February (M = 80.3°F), April (M = 88.3°F), and May (M = 99.2°F). Analyses revealed a main effect for crowding on most dependent measures, a main effect for temperature on a few measures, and interactions of these variables on measures of crowding and general affect. In the second study, passengers riding under crowded or noncrowded conditions were told of the sensory/emotional effects of either crowding or heat, or they were not told anything. Results indicated that crowding produced negative effects and that telling people about the effects of heat gave participants the feeling of greater perceived control as compared to telling them about the effects of crowding.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)527-554
Number of pages28
JournalEnvironment and Behavior
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1992

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Environmental Science


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