Volumetric Photoacoustic Imaging with Low-Cost and Easily Fabricated Planar Array Ultrasound Transducers

Mahaan Mitra, Akshay Kumar, Shubham Khandare, Prameth Gaddale, Yashoda Anandan, Srian Pedibhotla, Kaustav Roy, Haoyang Chen, Rudra Pratap, Sri Rajasekhar Kothapalli

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


2-D Ultrasound (US) Transducer (2D-UST) arrays facilitate scan-less volumetric photoacoustic imaging (3D-PAI), but are typically high-cost, involve laborious fabrication process, and permit limited scalability in design with respect to array parameters like element count, aperture size, center frequency (f!) and array pitch. In this work, we report a novel, 2-D matrix UST array fabricated on a printed circuit board (PCB) substrate (2D-PCB-UST array) at low-cost and without the need of advanced cleanroom fabrication technologies. Further, the 2D-PCB-UST array parameters can be easily modified with PCB design software. We demonstrate the scalability by fabricating two arrays, (i) an 8x8 array with 1.5 mm pitch and f! 40 MHz, and (ii) an 4x4 array with 1.2 mm pitch and f! 11 MHz. Initial characterization results demonstrate wideband PA receive sensitivity, characterized by the 6-dB fractional bandwidth for both low and high frequency UST arrays. Phantom imaging results demonstrate 3D-PAI capabilities despite low element count and sparse array geometry.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPhotons Plus Ultrasound
Subtitle of host publicationImaging and Sensing 2024
EditorsAlexander A. Oraevsky, Lihong V. Wang
ISBN (Electronic)9781510669437
StatePublished - 2024
EventPhotons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2024 - San Francisco, United States
Duration: Jan 28 2024Jan 31 2024

Publication series

NameProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
ISSN (Print)1605-7422


ConferencePhotons Plus Ultrasound: Imaging and Sensing 2024
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomaterials
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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