Ways of Being: Assessing Presence and Purpose at Work

William T. Brendel, Sang Won Byun, Mi Hee Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cognitive-behavioral, spiritual, and integral approaches to management each describe a leader’s way of being as a matter of congruence between presence and purpose. This article introduces Ways of Being Theory (WBT), which bridges these approaches by comparatively analyzing assumptions and empirical observations. WBT defines presence as an individual’s dispositional level of awareness and purpose as the typical level of meaning they assign to work. By connecting these tensions, WBT reveals four different ways of being that have critical implications for leaders and organizations facing unprecedented challengesfindings comparative fromincharacteristicsthea preliminarywake IP: of COVID.of study aDeliveredThisWay On: onarticleofpsychometric Tue, Beingalsoby 04Ingenta Inventorypresents Apr and 2023 (WBI), which partially supports a two-factor structure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)53-86
Number of pages34
JournalJournal of Management, Spirituality and Religion
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Religious studies
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Strategy and Management
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management


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