Wearable MXene-Graphene Sensing of Influenza and SARS-CoV-2 Virus in Air and Breath: From Lab to Clinic

Yanxiao Li, Zhekun Peng, Jiaoli Li, Congjie Wei, Shangbin Liu, Weixing Hao, Huanyu Cheng, Casey Burton, Yang Wang, Yue Wern Huang, Chang Soo Kim, Fang Yao Stephen Hou, Dong Hyun Kim, Chenglin Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The rapidly expanding severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants demand a continuous monitoring method through portable and wearable devices. Utilizing the rich surface chemistry and high chemical-to-electrical signal conversion of 2D MXene-graphene heterostructure thin films, a field-effect-transistor (FET) sensor, which has a flexible substrate to be assembled onto the mask and combines with a Bluetooth system for wireless transmission is developed, to detect the influenza and SARS-CoV-2 viruses in air and breath. At first, the developed sensors are examined in the laboratory through direct contact with sensing targets in solution form. The results show a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1 fg mL−1 for recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and 125 copies mL−1 for inactivated influenza A (H1N1) virus with high specificity in differing recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and inactivated H1N1 virus. Then the sensors are tested under various simulated human breathing modes through controlled exposure to atomizer-generated aerosols in an enclosed chamber and mask coverage. The results show the high sensitivity of the developed sensors under varying distances to the source, viral load, flow rate, and enclosed conditions. At last, clinical tests are carried out to demonstrate the robustness and potential field applications of the sensors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2201787
JournalAdvanced Materials Technologies
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 5 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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