What Is Food Noise? A Conceptual Model of Food Cue Reactivity

Daisuke Hayashi, Caitlyn Edwards, Jennifer A. Emond, Diane Gilbert-Diamond, Melissa Butt, Andrea Rigby, Travis D. Masterson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


As GLP-1 receptor agonists, like semaglutide, emerge as effective treatments for weight management, anecdotal reports from patients and clinicians alike point to a reduction in what has been colloquially termed “food noise”, as patients report experiencing less rumination and obsessive preoccupation about food. In this narrative review, we discuss concepts used in studies to investigate human eating behavior that can help elucidate and define food noise, particularly food cue reactivity. We propose a conceptual model that summarizes the main factors that have been shown to determine the magnitude of the reactivity elicited by external and internal food cues and how these factors can affect short- and long-term behavioral and clinical outcomes. By integrating key research conducted in this field, the Cue–Influencer–Reactivity–Outcome (CIRO) model of food cue reactivity provides a framework that can be used in future research to design studies and interpret findings related to food noise and food cue reactivity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4809
Issue number22
StatePublished - Nov 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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