What kind of minimal instruction manual is the most effective

John B. Black, John M. Carroll, Stuart M. McGuigan

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

3 Scopus citations


An empirical study examined the effectiveness of four different versions of a self-instruction manual for a word processing system: a Skeletal version that explicitly states only the essential information, an Inferential version that has the users infer some of the essential information, a Rehearsal version that is like the Skeletal manual, but adds opportunities to rehearse the explicitly stated information, and a Lengthy version that adds nonessential explanatory and descriptive information to the Skeletal version. The best learning performance was obtained with the inferential approach, particularly for more realistic tasks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Number of pages4
StatePublished - 1987

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Software

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