Worse sleep health predicts less frequent breakfast consumption among adolescents in a micro-longitudinal analysis

Gina Marie Mathew, David A. Reichenberger, Lindsay Master, Orfeu M. Buxton, Lauren Hale, Anne Marie Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background: Poor self-reported sleep health has been linked to not consuming breakfast in adolescents, but it is unknown whether poor sleep measured objectively predicts next-day breakfast consumption within adolescents. We investigated within- and between-person associations of objectively measured sleep dimensions and subjective sleep quality with adolescent breakfast consumption. Methods: Data were collected from a micro-longitudinal substudy of the Year 15 wave of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 590). Adolescents wore an actigraphy device and completed daily diaries for ~ 1 week (M ± SD = 5.6 ± 1.4 nights per adolescent, range: 3–9), where they rated their sleep quality and reported whether they had eaten breakfast that day, with no specific definition of breakfast provided (M ± SD = 5.5 ± 1.4 days per adolescent, range: 3–9). Separate mixed models assessed whether actigraphy-measured sleep duration (linear and quadratic, sleep duration x sleep duration), timing, maintenance efficiency, and subjective quality predicted odds of breakfast consumption both within and between adolescents. Variability of sleep duration and timing (standard deviation per person), sleep regularity index (SRI), and social jetlag were tested as additional between-person predictors. Analyses with predictors other than sleep duration were adjusted for sleep duration. Results: Following nights when adolescents had shorter or longer sleep duration (p =.005; curvilinear association), later sleep onset, or later sleep midpoint (both p =.025) than their own usual, they had lower odds of consuming breakfast the next day (within-person associations). Adolescents who on average had later sleep onset (p =.013) or midpoint (p =.013) or who reported lower sleep quality (p =.011) had lower average odds of consuming breakfast (between-person associations). Adolescents with greater variability of sleep duration (p =.005), midpoint (p =.004), or offset (p <.001) had lower average odds of consuming breakfast (between-person associations). Sleep maintenance efficiency (within or between adolescents), SRI, and social jetlag were not associated with breakfast consumption (all p >.10). Conclusions: Multiple dimensions of sleep health are associated with breakfast consumption, both within and between adolescents. Poor sleep and dietary behaviors in adolescence may negatively impact future metabolic health.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number70
JournalInternational Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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