X-ray-rich gamma-ray bursts, photospheres, and variability

P. Mészáros, E. Ramirez-Ruiz, M. J. Rees, B. Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

147 Scopus citations


We investigate the relationship between the quasi-thermal baryon-related photosphere in relativistic outflows and the internal shocks arising outside them, which out to a limiting radius may be able to create enough pairs to extend the optically thick region. Variable gamma-ray light curves are likely to arise outside this limiting pair-forming shock radius, while X-ray excess bursts may arise from shocks occurring below it; a possible relation to X-ray flashes is discussed. This model leads to a simple physical interpretation of the observational gamma-ray variability-luminosity relation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)812-817
Number of pages6
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2 I
StatePublished - Oct 20 2002

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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