Xe+-irradiation effects on multilayer thin-film optical surfaces in EUV lithography

J. P. Allain, A. Hassanein, M. M.C. Allain, B. J. Heuser, M. Nieto, C. Chrobak, D. Rokusek, B. Rice

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


In extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) environments, transient plasma dynamics dictate conditions for particle/surface interactions. A critical challenge facing EUVL development is optical component lifetime in both gas-discharge-produced plasmas (DPP) and laser-produced plasma (LPP) devices. Optical components are exposed to impinging fast ions and neutrals, impurities (H, C, O, N) and debris, leading to component degradation and consequently limiting 13.5-nm light reflection intensity. This paper studies Xe+ irradiation-induced mechanisms that affect the performance of EUVL multilayer collector mirror surfaces. Irradiation conditions include: incident particle energies of 1 keV and 5 keV, Xe+ fluences ranging from about 3 × 1014-5 × 1016 Xe+/cm2 and surface temperatures of 273 K and 473 K. Measurements include in situ quartz crystal microbalance for sputtering rate measurements, ion scattering spectroscopy, X-ray reflectivity and atomic force microscopy. Three distinct erosion regimes for bombardment of MLM with Xe+ are: a low Xe + fluence regime below ∼5 × 1014 Xe +/cm2, a moderate regime at fluences between 5 × 1014 and 5 × 1016 Xe+/cm2 and a high fluence regime >1017 Xe+/cm2.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)520-522
Number of pages3
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Jan 2006

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Instrumentation


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